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I thought I had this working a few minutes ago:

root $ 
root $ docker container ls
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                       COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS                   PORTS                               NAMES
9eb4a18def01        mysql/mysql-server:latest   "/entrypoint.sh mysq…"   6 minutes ago       Up 6 minutes (healthy)   0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 33060/tcp   mysql
root $ 
root $ mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (2)
root $ 
root $ docker exec -ti --user root mysql bash
bash-4.2# 
bash-4.2# mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 16
Server version: 8.0.21 MySQL Community Server - GPL

Copyright (c) 2000, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 
mysql> SELECT host, user FROM mysql.user;
+-----------+------------------+
| host      | user             |
+-----------+------------------+
| localhost | healthchecker    |
| localhost | mysql.infoschema |
| localhost | mysql.session    |
| localhost | mysql.sys        |
| localhost | root             |
+-----------+------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
mysql> CREATE USER 'user'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)

mysql> 
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'user'@'%' WITH GRANT OPTION;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.13 sec)

mysql> 
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> 
mysql> SELECT host, user FROM mysql.user;
+-----------+------------------+
| host      | user             |
+-----------+------------------+
| %         | user             |
| localhost | healthchecker    |
| localhost | mysql.infoschema |
| localhost | mysql.session    |
| localhost | mysql.sys        |
| localhost | root             |
+-----------+------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
mysql> exit
Bye
bash-4.2# 
bash-4.2# mysql -u user -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 21
Server version: 8.0.21 MySQL Community Server - GPL

Copyright (c) 2000, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 
mysql> exit
Bye
bash-4.2#   
bash-4.2# exit
exit
root $ 
root $ mysql -u user -p
Enter password: 
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (2)
root $ 

but clearly not. How do I check that the container connection is accessible? I'm trying:

root $ 
root $ telnet 127.0.0.1 3306
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to 127.0.0.1.
Escape character is '^]'.
J
8.0.21%#%T:/]T�e-r&UR([/caching_sha2_password
^CConnection closed by foreign host.
root $ 
root $ 
root $ telnet 127.0.0.1 33060
Trying 127.0.0.1...
telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused
root $ 

but that seems a bit odd.

1
1

Solution:

root $ 
root $ mysql -h localhost -P 3306 --protocol=tcp -u user -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 17
Server version: 8.0.21 MySQL Community Server - GPL

Copyright (c) 2000, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 
mysql> SELECT host, user FROM mysql.user;
+-----------+------------------+
| host      | user             |
+-----------+------------------+
| %         | user             |
| localhost | healthchecker    |
| localhost | mysql.infoschema |
| localhost | mysql.session    |
| localhost | mysql.sys        |
| localhost | root             |
+-----------+------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 

per:

https://stackoverflow.com/q/33001750/4531180

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