The current list of Jenkins jobs has 4 columns: Name, Last Success, Last Failure, Last Duration.
Is there any way to add a new column which would have some custom value extracted from the job?
From what I can tell you can definitely customize the columns for a custom view (I can't find where to change it for the "All" view, but it's probably possible). Unfortunately it doesn't look trivial to add a custom column without writing a plugin, for example the jacoco plugin:
Jenkins Java Doc:
Edit: This plugin might get you closer to what you're looking for: