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I'm aware that Kubernetes uses containerd internally and that containerd is part of Docker. Does that mean that Kubernetes only uses certain parts of Docker to provide orchestration of containers? Additionally, how does runc fit into this ecosystem, I'm aware Kubernetes uses it because CVEs affecting runc impact Kubernetes.

I've not been able to find out what the technical components of Kubernetes are; there are plenty of diagrams out there showing the logical elements (i.e. masters, nodes, kubelets, deployments, services, pods, etc.). However, I'm trying to get into the details a bit more and understand what parts make up Kubernetes.

Is it possible to describe how Kubernetes is constructed from its components such as runc, containerd and Docker?

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Containerd is a daemon for running containers. The Docker blog has a nice write up explaining how this fits into Docker. While containerd is used in Docker, it can also be used as a daemon for other container solutions. Containerd requires runc in order to function.

runc as defined by the project is a "CLI tool for spawning and running containers according to the OCI specification".

These tools are designed to follow the Open Container Initiative (OCI) specifications. This has become a standard and defines how Docker and other tooling interacts with containerd and runc.

When you look at most Kubernetes diagrams they will not show containerd or runc as they are abstracted away into the container engine you use (e.g., Docker, rkt). Because Kubernetes uses containerd, it will also use runc. This is what allows multiple container solutions that follow OCI specifications to integrate with Kubernetes.

So yes, you could break down how part of Kubernetes is built by looking at runc, containerd, and the container engine.

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