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122
votes
5answers
52k views

Why it is recommended to run only one process in a container?

In many blog posts, and general opinion, there is a saying that goes "one process per container". Why does this rule exist? Why not run ntp, nginx, uwsgi and more processes in a single container that ...
99
votes
5answers
143k views

What is an artifactory?

There are quite some questions and answers that mention "artifactory". I wouldn't be surprised if it is somehow related to artifacts. My questions: What is actually an "artifactory" (in the context ...
77
votes
6answers
162k views

Cleanest way to prematurely exit a Jenkins Pipeline job as a success?

I have a job that will create files, unless one of the values being fed to it matches an older value. What's the cleanest way in Jenkins to abort or exit the job, without it being FAILED? It exiting ...
76
votes
3answers
24k views

What's the difference between travis-ci.org and travis-ci.com?

A few of the GitHub projects I contribute to use Travis CI for build testing. However, I've noticed that some projects use travis-ci.org for build testing, while others use travis-ci.com. Both sites ...
73
votes
8answers
9k views

How to help DevOps Engineers feel less like a lone wolf?

I have just been speaking to a DevOps guy who raised some really good points about the struggles of being a DevOps Engineer and feeling like a one-man army sometimes, even though he is in a team of 16 ...
71
votes
2answers
35k views

What is the definition of “cattle not pets”?

The term "treat your servers like cattle not pets" has proliferated in recent years, particularly when applied to Docker containers and Virtual Machines What does it actually mean?
65
votes
8answers
113k views

How do you back up Jenkins jobs & master configs?

I'd like to backup all Jenkins jobs and config files. What's the easiest way of doing it?
62
votes
4answers
8k views

What is the difference between SRE and DevOps?

What is the difference between SRE and DevOps? Site Reliability Engineering and Development Operations seem to overlap a lot in detail. How do I know which group is responsible for what, and how do I ...
60
votes
5answers
75k views

How to decrypt Jenkins passwords from credentials.xml?

I've taken over the project where a lot of Jenkins credentials has passwords or passphrase strings which I need to know in order to progress with the project, unfortunately these weren't documented ...
56
votes
7answers
23k views

How can I manage secrets in .tf and .tfstate?

I would like to use the Terraform MySQL Provider to keep a list of mysql users and grants handy for creating new test environments. The .tf and .tfstate files both seem to want to store the MySQL ...
52
votes
6answers
13k views

What is the difference between Sysadmin and DevOps Engineer?

When applying for a job, usually you can find two types of similar jobs: Sysadmin Engineer and DevOps Engineer. Both of them deal with server configuration and ensure the reliable operation of ...
49
votes
6answers
72k views

Downloading Docker Images from Docker Hub without using Docker

I want to manually download a Docker Image from Docker Hub. More specifically, I want to download a Docker Image from Docker Hub on a machine in a restricted environment which does not (and cannot) ...
46
votes
5answers
3k views

What is Serverless?

All the cloud providers are marketing their "serverless" solutions. The promise is that serverless is going to replace the way developers are currently develop their software, and operations manage it ...
46
votes
6answers
20k views

How to test a Terraform Configuration?

If you had a Terraform configuration that had a moderate degree of complexity, how would you write tests around the configuration that could be executed as part of a Continuous Integration / ...
46
votes
1answer
14k views

What is a “Walking Skeleton”?

One of my agile teams has taken an interesting approach in the early stages of their project. Instead of starting the project with a Sprint 0 where they setup code infrastructure and decide on the ...
45
votes
5answers
13k views

How is Ansible different from simply running a provisioning bash shell in Vagrant?

A team of IT sysadmins that have exprience using shell scripting to solve their problems, are contemplating to start using Ansible instead. Are there substantial differences and good reasons to start ...
44
votes
7answers
4k views

What's the difference between DevOps and Automation?

I see that whenever someone does DevOps, it's mostly about automating things like deployment etc. But where does automation end and DevOps begin?
44
votes
2answers
22k views

How do you calculate the compound Service Level Agreement (SLA) for cloud services?

Cloud services hosted by Amazon Web Services, Azure, Google and most others publish the Service Level Agreement, or SLA, for the individual services they provide. Architects, Platform Engineers and ...
44
votes
7answers
3k views

What are best and comprehensive practices to consider when running docker in production?

Finally, you are so much in love with Docker that you want to move your online business-critical production systems with sensitive customer data to a Docker Swarm. Some might even already have done so....
41
votes
4answers
43k views

Terraform: apply only one tf file

I have my security groups in a securitygroup.tf file. In the same dir there are plenty of other resource descriptions (rds, ec2 etc). Is there a way to perform a terraform apply --auto-approve only ...
37
votes
3answers
10k views

What are the reasons Docker should not be used for databases?

I'm having a discussion with a friend about use cases for Docker. One guy in the team wants to use Docker for everything - like a kind of universal unix process wrapper. The other thinks that Docker ...
37
votes
2answers
27k views

Passing secrets to a Docker container

I have a base docker image which is used to run image analysis software. For each container created from the image, there are a set of configuration settings, some of which are secrets (encryption ...
36
votes
5answers
6k views

How to test provisioning and configuration in Ansible setup?

Looking at trying to build some resilience into our Ansible setup which deals with provisioning and configuration. I understand a few methods of testing on the configuration side of things but I'm ...
35
votes
5answers
8k views

How to avoid interactive dialogs when running “apt-get upgrade -y” in Ubuntu 16.04 when packaging with Packer?

I'm using Packer to create an AWS AMI based on an Ubuntu 16.04 image. In the beginning, I'm doing an upgrade: sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get upgrade -y Here is the relevant part of my provisioners ...
34
votes
7answers
4k views

Why shouldn't I try to hire a 'DevOps Engineer'?

The idea of having a DevOps Engineer has become quite popular recently, and it seems appealing to just have a person who can slot in and provide many of the benefits of DevOps, as described in the ...
34
votes
3answers
543 views

Is DevOps compatible with ITIL?

In my career, I have been both a software developer and ITIL practitioner in an operations role. Thus DevOps was a natural progression for me. However, I have always struggled with the highly ...
33
votes
2answers
610 views

What is a good strategy to keep my site online when S3 goes offline?

What is a good strategy to keep my site online when S3 goes offline? If S3 US East 1 goes offline, how should I have my app configured/structured to prevent that taking my entire site offline? What ...
33
votes
2answers
23k views

Why is one not allowed to use a Boolean in a docker-compose.yml?

Defining a boolean in a docker-compose.yml file: environment: SOME_VAR: true and running docker up results in: contains true, which is an invalid type, it should be a string, number, or a null ...
33
votes
4answers
67k views

What does “Does not have minimum availability” in k8s mean?

What does "Does not have minimum availability" mean? A GitHub discussion was found, but it is not clear to me what the error message means.
32
votes
2answers
13k views

What is an artifact repository?

What is an artifact repository? If it's just a place to store files, can't I just use a source control system?
31
votes
3answers
7k views

Understanding Docker layers

We have the following block in our Dockerfile: RUN yum -y update RUN yum -y install epel-release RUN yum -y groupinstall "Development Tools" RUN yum -y install python-pip git mysql-devel libxml2-...
31
votes
4answers
10k views

Why is the AWS EC2's spot price greater than the on-demand price?

I was trying to provision spot instances via Ansible yesterday, and almost all my requests failed, even when I put my spot price == the on-demand price of that instance. So, when I had a look at the ...
31
votes
3answers
4k views

Who is this Chaos Monkey and why did he crash my server?

I had a perfect server, it was so pretty and rock solid and so I named it Petra. It was perfect in every way, everything was configured and tuned just right, it had perfect 100% service record and 753 ...
30
votes
6answers
795 views

How can I persuade developers on my team to embrace “You build it, you run it”?

How can I persuade developers on my team to embrace "You build it, you run it"? By that, I have this quote from Werner Vogels in mind: Giving developers operational responsibilities has greatly ...
30
votes
5answers
16k views

Where to put ansible-vault password

We are planning to use ansible vault in our project to prevent leaking passwords or keys in git. The idea is to put all our sensitive data into a plain file then encrypt this file with ansible-vault ...
29
votes
8answers
68k views

How to safe restart Jenkins?

I need to make some configuration changes on our Jenkins instance that will involve restarting Jenkins a couple of times. However, our developers are committing frequently enough that I haven't seen ...
29
votes
4answers
38k views

How to properly achieve dynamic parallel action with a declarative pipeline?

Currently, I'm going to need an implementation that must find all files within a directory and start a parallel task for every file found. Is it possible to achieve this using declarative pipelines? ...
28
votes
2answers
51k views

Can I bypass host key checking in Ansible?

I'm running an Ansible playbook with a subtle hack to work on an arbitrary port forwarded port (so I can use one machine with no direct access to lots of machines). I've got a pre-task to change ...
28
votes
8answers
26k views

How to install Certbot plugins?

I installed Certbot by following this tutorial: sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install python-certbot-nginx And now I want to set up my cert, but I need ...
28
votes
4answers
98k views

How to remove directories and files in another layer using Docker? [duplicate]

Why this question? The reason for posting this Q&A is that sometimes certain software is required to compile software in a docker image. Once compiled, these packages are superfluous and should ...
28
votes
4answers
8k views

How to properly scale Jenkins?

In my project we have one AWS server running Jenkins Master + 1 Jenkins slave (2 executors)... and we need more In order to augment our build power we have three options: Scale up: Make AWS instance ...
27
votes
5answers
717 views

Is DevOps restricted to companies with SaaS products?

The practices describing DevOps, such as continuous delivery, automation, etc. are relevant to products that provide continuous service, such as SaaS products. For example, a software development ...
27
votes
2answers
26k views

How to use cloud-init with Terraform?

I am working with Digital Ocean and Terraform and I already can automate the domain, subdomain, network preferences and the host but there is a section called User data that looks like this: The ...
27
votes
3answers
43k views

docker-compose invalid type, it should be a string

I have the following environment variable configured in a docker-compose.yml file: version: '3' services: server: ports: - 13045:3000 environment: - NODE_CONFIG: '{"DATABASE_URL":"...
26
votes
5answers
4k views

What are immutable servers?

There are some questions about immutable servers, such as: How to implement the immutable server pattern without loosing the ability to do post-mortems? What role do Configuration Managment tools ...
26
votes
4answers
10k views

What are the advantages of dockerizing nginx and php in different containers?

I just started working with Docker and Kubernetes and I've been watching a lot of stacks, in which some people build nginx+php in a single image and some build an image with nginx and another one with ...
25
votes
4answers
576 views

What are some methods to measure the ROI for DevOps?

DevOps is complex, and involves many non-deterministic aspects like culture and process. What are some ways to measure DevOps initiatives for success? How do you prove to a business that the ...
25
votes
5answers
8k views

How to clean up orphaned AWS EC2 snapshots?

We end up with a fair amount of AWS EC2 snapshots where the AMI has been deleted, but the snapshot is left behind to rot. I'd like a non-manual way of identifying and deleting these orphans to save us ...
25
votes
2answers
10k views

How to have multiple log streams in docker

We have an application that writes three types of logs into three separate files: access logs, generic application logs and system logs. The format (and purpose) of these logs are very different. And ...
25
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is Docker-in-Docker considered bad?

In August 2013 Jérôme Petazzoni created Docker in Docker, dind for short, this allowed Docker containers to be created inside of Docker Containers, this functionality proved very popular resulting in ...

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