Local repositories serve artifacts from your local storage. These are found in paths like this one:
Remote repositories act as proxies to remote locations which may e.g. be other Artifactory servers. They also provide caching. These are found in paths like this ...
Since the original question is also tagged with Nexus this is how to do bulk upload with Nexus 3:
find <directory name>/ \! -type d -print0 | xargs -P10 -0 -I@ curl -v --user <user>:<password> --upload-file ./@ http://localhost:8081/repository/<repository name>/@
In Nexus, go to the Admin Backend.
Create a blob store if you haven't already. Guidance can be found here: https://help.sonatype.com/repomanager3/configuration/repository-management#RepositoryManagement-BlobStores
Once you have a blob store, continue like so:
Choose "Repositories", hit "Create Repository". Choose "docker (proxy)" as the recipe.
Give it ...