Since I do not currently have access to a server with Centos installed, I tested my soultion on Ubuntu 20.04. That being said, the whole point of using Docker is to make applications distribution-agnostic, so it should work on Centos as well.
You're getting an image does not exist error, because the image you specified does not, in fact, exist. There is a ...
The problem is that the date format isn't ideal.
Supported formats for date formatted time stamps include RFC3339Nano, RFC3339, 2006-01-02T15:04:05, 2006-01-02T15:04:05.999999999, 2006-01-02Z07:00, and 2006-01-02
So this is really just a half answer, since it will use ...
I fixed the issue. In my case, it was PORT (absolutely) and HOST (maybe) environment variables I defined manually in the GitLab CI/CD Variables section. It seems PORT and maybe HOST are two reserved environment variables for GitLab and/or Docker.
By the way, I couldn't find anything in docs state not using those variables names.