The "official" nginx image has a specific path where it looks for files. You can either copy a file into the image by creating a new image from it or mount your files into this path as a volume.
To copy files, have a folder with your index.html and a Dockerfile that looks like this:
COPY index.html /usr/share/nginx/html
Then build a new ...
Did you only try to reach localhost? Or even 0.0.0.0 or 127.0.0.1?
Depending on the operating system, docker config and the internal networking setup, some problem can occurs to reach the docker network.
You can inspect the container to get the network IP, maybe you can go there https://stackoverflow.com/a/20686101/2904965